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Observer pattern and its application in javascript

December 24, 2020

In functional programming, there are two important concepts: composition and asynchronous flow. Observer pattern, I figured, is the best pattern to describe the asynchronous flow in functional programming. When I learned the pattern, it was a bit difficult to grasp the concept because different materials use different terminologies. Thus in this post, I aim to unify and give you the essence of the pattern, then compare its usages in a number of javascript implementations.

What is observer pattern about ?

The pattern, by its name, is a style of programming in which an application subscribe to a certain event of a subject. When the event happens, the subject will notify all subscribers. Each subscriber can then process the data from the subject based on its needs.

Observer pattern

There are two main components in the picture: Subject and Listener, or Observable and observer as called in RxJS. The observable can be seen as a wrapper for some asynchronous operations that may have a stream of data. What observable does is encapsulate that data let all observers knows when the data is ready. Observable has an interface i.e. subscribe or on to let observers register their handlers.

Event Emitter

Let us see an example using EventEmitter from Nodejs and implement observer pattern for a file reading action.

    const events = require('events');
    const fs = require('fs');
    function readFileEvent(fileName) {
        // create new emitter instance
        const emitter = new events.EventEmitter();
        // asynchronous action
        fs.readFile(fileName, 'utf8', (error, data) => {
            if(error) {
                emitter.emit('error', error);
            emitter.emit('data', data);
        return emitter;

The key thing to notice here is how readFileEvent create a wrapper i.e. event emitter around the asynchronous fs.readFile method. The wrapper in this case is the Subject or Observerable. Any client that use readFileEvent can later subscribe to error or data events from the wrapper.

    const dataReader = readFileEvent('.\\bookings.json');
    const bookingSummaryListener = dataReader.on('data', renderData);
    const logListener = dataReader.on('error', logError); 

As we can see here, a subject can be subscribed from many different listeners. In the example two listeners subscribe to different events on the subject. This is the true power of observer pattern, it wraps an asynchronous action and notify all listeners when certain events happen.


Most of the usecases in asynchronous flow require only success and failure events. The Promise object in javascript is built to fullfill that usecase. For the same example, we can update the implementation using Promise

function readFileEvent(fileName) {
        return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
                fs.readFile(fileName, 'utf8', (error, data) => {
                if(error) {
// ...

Usecase of Promise is very similar to EventEmitter, however there is often only one client that subscribe to a promise, as opposed to many clients for event emitter.


Both examples above clearly shows the application of observer pattern in asynchronous flow. What happen when the asynchronous flow contains a stream of data or events ? The answer for that question is why people create RxJS. A very simple example with RxJS:

    import { fromEvent } from 'rxjs';
    import { throttleTime, map, scan } from 'rxjs/operators';

    fromEvent(document, 'click')
    .pipe( // wrapper of the asynchronous flows
        map(event => event.clientX),
        scan((count, clientX) => count + clientX, 0)
    .subscribe(count => console.log(count)); // handle subscription

In the example, an observable is created from document click event. The power of RxJS come from its operators with which we can compose many type of transformation for the event e.g throttle, map, scan. The end result of these operators is another observable. The subscribe function is very similar to Promise where client can provide onNext, onComplete or onError for the observable.

Final thoughts

It depends on each usecase to decide where you should use EventEmitter, Promise or RxJS or a combination of them. Essentially, they are different forms of observer pattern and very suitable to use in asynchronous flow.

Happy learning :)

Written by Thang Le, who likes to learn new things.